University of California, Riverside

International Society of Citriculture



International Citrus Congress - Israel 1988


International Citrus Congress - Tel Aviv, Israel 6-11 March 1988

Sixth meeting of the International Society of Citriculture

 

GENETICS, BREEDINGANDPROPAGATION ROOTSTOCKS

Nine rootstocks evaluated for four navel cultivars in the eastern Cape
L.C. Holthauzen, J.A. Grundingh, P.N.F. Niven and J. Maritz (S. Africa) [pg. 33]

Citrus rootstocks in Venezuela: Behavior of Valencia orange on ten rootstocks
E.E. Monteverde, F.J. Reyes, G. Laborem and J.R. Ruiz (Venezuela) [pg. 47]

Incompatibility of some stock-scion citrus combinations in Israel
S. Ashkenazi (Israel) [pg. 57]

A trial of rootstocks Clementine 'Comune' in Italy
G. Recupero-Reforgiato and F. Russo (Italy) [pg. 61]

The rootstock situation in Florida
H.K. Wutscher (USA) [pg. 67]

Response of Shamouti orange and Minneola tangelo on six rootstocks to salt stress
A. Vardi, P. Spiegel-Roy, G. Ben-Hayyim, H. Neumann and J. Shalhevet (Israel) [pg. 75]

Screening citrus rootstocks and rootstock-scion combinations for tolerance to calcareous soils
A. Shaked, A. Goell and M. Hamou (Israel) [pg. 83]

Bud union imperfections in combinations of Citrus deliciosa and Citrus sinensis with several rootstocks
L. Radogna and G. Geraci (Italy) [pg. 87]

Performance and physiological parameters of 'Comune' clementine influenced by four rootstocks
G. Continella, C. Germana, G. La Rosa and E. Tribulato (Italy) [pg. 91]

Behaviour of 'Nova' mandarin in Spanish conditions
R. Bono, L. Fernandez de Cordova and J. Soler (Spain) [pg. 101]

Rootstocks for grapefruit cultivars in the Yizreel Valley, Israel
A. Amir, S. Ashkenazi, A. Shaked and M. Kahn (Israel) [pg. 107]

Wild mandarine oranges in China
He Shanwen, Liu Gengfeng and Wenpin Li (China) [pg. 113]

Intra- and intergeneric hybridization in the orange subfamily, Aurantoideae
M. Iwamasa, N. Nito and J.-T. Ling (Japan) [pg. 123]

A new approach to selection for seedlessness
A. Vardi and P. Spiegel-Roy (Israel) [pg. 131]

Somatic hybridization between Navel orange and 'Murcott' tangor
S. Kobayashi, K. Fujiwara, I. Oiyama, T. Ohgawara and S. Ishii (Japan) [pg. 135]

Use of Papadakis analysis and other approaches to increase the precision of citrus rootstock and scion cultivar trials
M.L. Roose (USA) [pg. 141]

Selections of hybrids from Clementine Mandarin and Mandarin-like crosses in Sardinia
P. Deidda, S. Dettori and I. Chessa (Italy) [pg. 149]

Isozymes and DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms in citrus breeding and systematics
M.L. Roose (USA) [pg. 155]

A study of the identification of some lemon biotypes with leaf isozymes analysis and pollinic morphobiometry
G. Recupera-Reforgiato, W. de Leonardis, V, Piccione and A. Zizza (Italy) [pg. 167]

The genetic stability of three seedless clonal selections obtained by gamma-rays of the seedy 'Monreal Clementine
A. Starrantino, P. Mannino Mid F. Russo (Italy) [pg. 175]

Clementine 'Fedele': an early ripening mutation of the Clementine 'Comune'
G. Russo (Italy) [pg. 183]

Characteristics of 'Badessa', a late lemon cultivar partially tolerant to mal secco
F. Calabrese, G. Barbera and V. Somma (Italy) [pg. 189]

Rootstock selections from a 'Poorman' orange x Poncirus trifoliata cross
P. Spiegel-Roy, A. Vardi, A. Elhanati, Z. Solel and M. Bar- Joseph (Israel) [pg. 195]

First results of the clonal selection programme for lemon trees in Spain
A. Garcia-Lidon, I. Porras, D. Gonzalez and J.M. Ortiz-Marcide [pg. 207]

Morphometric and biochemical characterization of Spanish sour orange cultivars
Y. Gogorcena and J.M. Ortiz (Spain) [pg. 215]

Assessment of parthenocarpic tendency in citrus using irradiated marker pollen
A. Vardi, A. Frydman-Shani and S.A. Weinbaum (Israel) [pg. 225]

Lemon mutants obtained by gamma irradiation of the nucellus cultured in vitro
A. Starrantino, F. Russo, B. Donini and P. Spina (Italy) [pg. 23 1]

TISSUE CULTURE AND PROPAGATION

Immunological investigation of citrus development phases
Y.T. Tchan, A.M. Snowball, M.G. Mullins, J.W. Chen, A.M. Zeman and R. Shankar (Australia) [pg. 237]

'Siciliano' lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f.) budding height
O.L. Roller (Brazil) [pg. 241]

Plantlet regeneration by another culture of calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour)
J.-T. Ling, M. Iwamasa and N. Nito (Japan) [pg. 251]

A comparison among Citrus aurantium, L., Citrus parodist, Macf and Poncirus trifoliata. (L.) Raf., as pollen grain sources to obtain nucellar lines in citrus
O.S. Passos, A.P. Cunha-Sobrinho and W.S. Soares Filho (Brazil) [pg. 257]

MODERN BREEDING AND TAXONOMY (SYMPOSIUM)

Cytogenetics and the evolution of modem cultivated citrus
M. Iwamasa and N. Nito (Japan) [pg. 265]

Biochemistry, taxonomy and evolution of modem cultivated citrus
R.W. Scora (USA) [pg. 277]

Investigation and utilization of citrus varietal resources in China
Zhang Wen-Cai, Shao Zen-Yuan, Lo Jin-Hua, Deng Chuan-Hao, Deng Shu-Shin, and Wang Feng (China) [pg. 291]

Application of molecular methods to modem citrus taxonomy
E. Galun (Israel) [pg. 295]

Application of recent taxonomical approchcs and new techniques to citrus breeding
A. Vardi (Israel) [pg. 303]

Discussion panel on modern breeding and taxonomy:
K. Mendel, Chairman
M. Roose, F. Russo, P. Spiegel-Roy, H.K. Wutscher and E. Galun
[pg. 309]

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

GROWTH REGULATORS - IN MEMORY OF PROF. S.P. MONSELISE


Ethylene forming activity from ACC in citrus leaf discs: influence of light and darkness
L. Zacarias, D. Tudela and E. Primo-Millo (Spain)
[pg. 315]

Bioassay used to determine the impact of surfactants on the biological effectiveness of exogenous gibberellic acid
G.L. Henning and C.W. Coggins, Jr. (USA) [pg. 325]

Grapefruit rind blemish caused by interaction of gibberellic acid and welting agents
C.W. Coggins, Jr. and G.L. Henning (USA) [pg. 333]

The effectiveness of GA3 application to citrus fruit
J. Greenberg and E.E. Goldschmidt (Israel) [pg. 339]

Paclobutrazol and temperature effects on lemon
A.R. Hany and J. van Staden (South Africa) [pg. 343]

Abscisic acid and gibberellins in the fruitlets and leaves of the 'Valencia' orange in relation to fruit growth and retention
P.J. Hofman (South Africa) [pg. 355]

Influence of treatments with gibberellins on ABA in Verna lemon during growth and maturity
M. Parra Gilabert, A. Pina Tuells and J. Hernandez Rubio (Spain) [pg. 363]

Isolation and identification of cytokinins from developing citrus fruits
F.M. Hernandez Minana, E. Primo-Millo and J. Primo-Millo (Spain) [pg. 367]

Factors limiting productivity in citrus. A physiological approach
J.L. Guardiola (Spain) [pg. 381]

Chemical thinning of heavy crops of mandarins to increase fruit size
P.T. Gallasch (Australia) [pg. 395]

DEVELOPMENT AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES

Ethylene and callose deposition in citrus leaf abscission zones
M.J. Jaffe and R. Goren (Israel) [pg. 407]

Ultrastructural changes in the developing ovaries of citrus
F.R. Tadeo and E. Primo-Millo (Spain) [pg. 417]

An ultrastructural study on development and degeneration of unfertilized citrus ovules
F.R. Tadeo and E. Primo-Millo (Spain) [pg. 431]

Ultrastructural and physiological observations on pollen of five Clementine (C. Clementina Hort ex Tan.) cultivars
F.G. Crescimanno, F. de Pasquale, M.A. Germana, F. Ciampolini and M. Cresti (Ilaly) [pg. 443]

Ultrastructural and physiological observations on pollen of six lemon cultivars [C. limon (L.) Burm.f]
F.G. Crescimanno, F. de Pasquale, M.A. Germana, F. Ciampolini and M. Cresti (Italy) [pg. 451]

'Juice spot' a rind disorder in 'Star Ruby' red grapefruit in Israel
A. Goell, H. Safran and Y, Emer (Israel) [pg. 459]

Studies on juvenility in citrus
A.M. Snowball, E.A. Halligan and M.G. Mullins (Australia, New Zealand, USA) [pg. 467]

FLOWERING AND PRODUCTIVITY

A new look at the Kraus-Kraybill hypothesis and flowering in Citrus
C.J. Lovatt, Y. Zheng and K.D. Hake (USA) [pg. 475]

Competition and fruitlet abscission in Satsuma mandarin
A. Garcia-Luis, F. Pome's and J.L. Guardiola (Spain) [pg. 485]

Relationships between production of 'Hamlin' orange trees and the monthly rainfalls at the Plateau of Botucatu
A. Tubelis and A.A. Salibe (Brazil) [pg. 497]

The physiology and nutrition of citrus fruit growth with special reference to the 'Valencia': A mini-review
J.E. Miller and P.J. Hofman (South Africa) [pg. 503]

WATER RELATIONS. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND MINERAL NUTRITION

Relationship between salinity and nitrogen source cultured citrus cells
G. Ben-Hayyim and Y. Goffer (Israel)
[pg. 511]

Pressure chamber assessment of xylem potential in citrus trees: Noon vs. pre-dawn readings
G. Germana and V. Sardo (Italy) [pg. 519]

Correlations among some physiological and climatic parameters in orange trees
G. Germana and V. Sardo (Italy) [pg. 525]

Factors in navelina orange splitting
V. De Cicco, F. Intrigliolo, A. Ippolilo, S. Vanadia and A. Guiffrida (Italy) [pg. 535]

Pyruvate kinase: A potential indicator of calcium level in citrus leaves and fruit
R. Lavon, R. Salomon and E.E. Goldschmidt (Israel) [pg. 541]

Spectral reflectance of different aged grape fruit leaves
G.J. Edwards (USA) [pg. 547]

Effects of several Fe-chelates on the iron leaf content of 'Vema' lemon trees
E. Hellin, R. Urena, F. Sevilla, J.L. Gimenez and C.F. Alcaraz (Spain) [pg. 555]

BIOCHEMISTRY OF CITRUS

Influence of the citrus species and varieties on the isozyme profile of iron -superoxide dismutases
F. Sevilla, M.S. Almansa, E. Hellin and C.F. Alcaraz (Spain)
[pg. 561]

Influence of crop load in the composition of free amino acids in organs of mature 'Valencia' late [C. Sinensis (L.) Osbeck] trees during the growth cycle
M.C. Calot, F. Legaz, B. Martin and E. Primo-Millo (Spain) [pg. 571]

Annual variation of essential oils in the leaves of sour lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.f.] cultivars
F.G. Crescimanno, F. de Pasquale, M.A. Germana, E. Bazan and E. Palazzolo (Italy) [pg. 583]

Influence of the harvesting period on the yield of essential oil from the peel of four lemon cultivars [C. limon (L.) Burm.f.]
F.G. Crescimanno, F. de Pasquale, M.A. Germana, E. Bazan and E. Palozzolo (Italy) [pg. 589]

Reserves mobilization during germination of citrus seeds
P. Garcia-Augustin and E. Primo-Millo (Spain) [pg. 597]

Effect of rootstocks on isoenzymic composition of citrus
E.E. Protopapadadis (Greece) [pg. 609]


CULTURAL PRACTICES

GROVE MANAGEMENT

Cultural practices for citrus orchard formation
L.C. Donadio, J.R. Moreira Cabrita, A. Reboucas Sao Jose and D.A. Bonzatto (Brazil) [pg. 615]

Evaluation of glufosinate ammonium in citrus orchards
D.G. De Barreda, E. Lorenzo and A. del Busto (Spain) [pg. 621]

Effect of "covering" on biomorphometric habitus and productivity of lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.] in the peninsula of Sorrento (Naples, Italy)
N. Pilone (Italy) [See Addendum in Volume 4, pages 1819-1830]

FERTILIZATION

Nitrogen and potassium requirements of citrus
S. Dasberg (Israel)
[pg. 625]

Use of controlled-release nitrogen for citrus in a humid region
R.C.J. Koo (USA) [pg. 633]

Absorption and distribution of nitrogen-15 applied to young orange trees
F. Legaz and E. Primo-Millo (Spain) [pg. 643]

The effect of N and K fertilisation on yield and fruit size of Valencia
S.F. du Plessis and T.J. Koen (S. Africa) [pg. 663]

Nutritional features of 16 clones of lemon
F. Intrigliolo and A. Strarrantino (Italy) [pg. 673]

Citrus zinc manganese nutrition revisited
T.W. Embelton, M. Matsumura and I.A. Khan (USA) [pg. 681]

Developing a unique leaf analysis service, including a computer model
P.T. Gallasch and G.R. Pfeiler (Australia) [pg. 689]

Citrus irrigation in Israel — making do with less water
A. Goell (Israel) [pg. 699]

The effect of saline irrigation water on Shamouti orange production
H. Bielorai, S. Dasberg, Y. Ener and M. Brum (Israel) [pg. 707]

Effects of different levels of water stress on yield and quality of lemon trees
G. Barbera and F. Carimi (Italy) [pg. 717]

Effects of soil heating on 'Navelina' orange
L. Cutore, R. Licata, F. Parrini and V. Sardo (Italy) [pg. 723]

Irrigation scheduling of citrus
S.F. du Plessis (S. Africa) [pg. 731]

Water use and yield of a mature Shamouti orange orchard submitted to root volume restriction and intensive canopy pruning
S. Moreshet, Y. Cohen and M. Fuchs (Israel) [pg. 739]

Drip and microsprinkler irrigation for young 'Valencia' orange trees
M. Azzena, P. Deidda and S. Dettori (Italy) [pg. 747]

Using the 'graduated irrigation' experimental model for determining optimal irrigation requirements of citrus trees
A.Cohen and A. Goell [pg. 753]

Citrus reponses to different irrigation levels in Southern Portugal (Algarve)
H.-J. Brych and P. Ludders (FRG) [See addendum in Volume 4, pages 1831-1836]

DISEASES AND NEMATODES

CRYPTOGAMIC DISEASES

Summary of six year trials with fosetyl-Al for the control of Phytophthora diseases of citrus
B. Chatenet, R. Mercer and J. Paviot (France) [pg. 761]

Factors affecting soil populations of Phytophihora in citrus orchards
G. Magnano di San Lio, G. Perrotta, S.O. Cacciola and R. Tuttobene (Italy) [pg. 767]

Preliminary observations on correlation between in vivo and in vitro resistance of Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) to Phytopkihora gummosis
N. Tusa, G. Geraci and V. Somma (Italy) [pg. 775]

The involvement of scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) in resistance of citrus rootstocks against Phytophthora citrophthora
U. Afek and A. Sztejnberg (Israel) [pg. 779]

Antimicrobial activity of various essential oils against some citrus fruit disease agents
G. Arras (Italy) [pg. 787]

Citrus leaf spot, a new mexican lime disease: A review
S. Becerra, V.M. Medina, J.G. Garza and M. Orozco (Mexico) [pg. 795]

Integrated control of fungal and bacterial diseases of citrus: Present status and future development
M. Salerno (Italy) [pg. 801]

Comparison between virulence and some cultural characteristics of eleven mutants and two wild strains of Phoma tracheiphila (Petri) Kane, et Ghik.)
A. Burgio, B. Rosciglione and C. Laviola (Italy) [pg. 807]

Phytotoxic metabolites of ipo-virulent and virulent Phoma tracheiphila isolates
A.M. Pennisi, G.D. Di Pasquale, M. Bonforte and F. Sesto (Italy) [pg. 817]

Culture filtrates of Phoma tracheiphila (Petri) Kanc. et Ghik. to test lemon resistance to mal secco disease
G. Geraci, N. Tusa and V. Somma (Italy) [pg. 829]

Cryptogamic diseases of bergamot observed in Calabria (Italy)
S. Grasso and G. Polizzi (Italy) [pg. 833]

Factors affecting feeder root rot of citrus caused by Fusarium solani
N. Labuschagne and J.M. Kotze (S. Africa) [pg. 839]

Seasonal fluctuation of citrus leaf-spot disease Altemaria sp. on Mexican lime trees
S. Becerra (Mexico) [pg. 847]

Length of receptivity of wounds on sour orange seedlings to Phoma traceiphila
G. Lanza and E. di Martino Aleppo (Italy) [See Addendum in Volume 4, pages 1837-1840]

C.T.V. AND OTHER VIRUSES

Concepts in the detection and control of citrus virus and virus-like diseases
C.N. Roistacher (USA) [pg. 853]

Effect of inoculation of a strain of 'Tristeza' on 'Tarocco' budlings on nine rootstocks
M. Davino, R. Areddia and G. Reforgiato-Recupero (Italy) [pg. 863]

Transmission of impietratura in 'Marsh seedless' grapefruit (Citrus parodisi Mcdf) by budwood or seeds
Y. Oren and A. Golomb (Israel) [pg. 867]

Status of Citrus tristeza and dieback diseases in India and their detection
Y.S. Ahlawat and S.P. Raychaudhuri (India) [pg. 871]

VIROIDS

Viroids in Australian citrus
M.R. Gillings, P. Broadbent, B.I. Gollnow and C. Lakeland (Australia) [pg. 881]

Different recovery from viroids of citrus plants obtained by shoot-tip grafting
A. Caruso, A. Stanantino, R. La Rosa and G. Albanese (Italy) [pg. 897]

Viroids and viroid-like RNAs on citrus plants
R. La Rosa, G. Albanese, M. Renis and A. Catara (Italy) [pg. 903]


DWARFING, PRUNING, AND SPACING

Mechanical transmition of citrus exoconis viroid as a method to eliminate xyloporosis coinfection
Y. Oren, R. Salomon, E. Israeli and S. Ashkenazi (Israel) [pg. 909]

Exocortis viroid (CEV) dwarfed trees in Yizreel Valley, Israel
A. Amir, S. Ashkenazi, A. Shaked and M. Kahn (Israel) [pg. 913]

The use of citrus exocortis virus (CEV) for tree size control in Israel — Practical aspects
S. Ashkenazi and Y. Oren (Israel) [pg. 917]

High density planting of intensive citrus groves: A challenge and realization
A. Golomb (Israel) [pg. 921]

Planting citrus at ultra high densities — A review of developments in Southern Africa with special reference to angle planting
G.F. Piner (South Africa) [pg. 931]

Responses of field-grown grapefruit trees to XE 1019 and paclobutrazol
D. Swietlik and J.E. Fucik (USA) [pg. 941]

Mechanical and aided pruning combined with tree removal of nucellar 'Tarocco' orange
F. Intrigliolo, G. Raciti and A. Scuderi (Italy) [pg. 947]

Pruning clementine mandarin as a method for limiting tree volume and increasing fruit size
Y. Oren (Israel) [pg. 953]

Virus, viroid and prokaryotic diseases of citrus in Pakistan
A. Catara, A. Azzaro, S.M. Moghal and D.A. Khan (Italy, Pakistan) [pg. 957]

Management of crowded grapefruit plots by tree-thinning or pruning
A. Golomb, D. Reinhartz and E. Israeli (Israel) [pg. 963]

NEMATODES

Future considerations for nematode management in citrus
D.T. Kaplan (USA)
[pg. 969]

Replanting problems in citrus. A case of Washington Navel on Troyer citrange
D.G. de Barreda, J. Tarancon, E. Lorenzo and F. Legaz (Spain) [pg. 977]

Comparison of anhydrobiotic ability of citrus nematodes with other plant parasitic nematodes
B.Y. Tsai and S.D. Van Gundy (USA) [pg. 983]

Phenologies of the citrus nematode and citrus roots treated with oxamyl
G.A. Hamid, S.D. Van Gundy and C.J. Lovatt (USA) [pg. 993]

OTHER DISEASES

Citrus canker [Xanthomonas campestris pv citri (Hasse) dye]: Disease progress in time in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil
D.A. Palazzo, E.M. de Nogueira and L.C. Ceravolo (Brazil) [pg. 1005]

Nutritional and soil factors affecting trees with citrus blight
H.K. Wutscher (USA) [pg. 1013]

Florida citrus blight
S. Nemec (USA) [pg. 1023]

Declinio of citrus trees: Tentative transmission trials in Brazil
V. Rosseiti and M.J.G. Beretta (Brazil) [pg. 1031]

Behaviour of different citrus rootstocks in relation to Declinio in Sao Paulo, Brazil
M.J.G. Beretta, V. Rossetti, J. Pompeu Jr. and J.T. Sobrinho (Brazil) [pg. 1039]

PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

CITRUS PESTS


Ecology of insect pest control
C.B. Huffaker (USA) [pg. 1047]

Citrus pests in the Mediterranean Basin
G.Viggiani (Italy) [pg. 1067]

The scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of citrus in Israel: Diversity and pest status
Y. Ben-Dov (Israel) [pg. 1075]

The spherical Mealybug infesting citrus in Israel
I. Bar-Zakay, B.A. Peleg and Ch. Chen (Israel) [pg. 1083]

The effect of citrus thrips and citrus red mite on navel orange fruit production in California's San Joaquin Valley
H.S. Elmer and O.L. Brawner (USA) [pg. 1089]

CHEMICAL CONTROL

Control of red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) in South Africa influenced by its resistance to organophosphates
M.B. Georgala (South Africa)
[pg. 1097]

Accumulation of Phenamiphos residues in lemon fruits from treated groves
M. Basile and G. Russo (Italy) [pg. 1103]

Aldicarb and metabolite residues in nectar following commercial applications to Florida, USA, Citrus
J.L. Knapp and H. Anson Moye (USA) [pg. 1107]

The effect of pesticides on citrus fauna in Japan
K. Nohara (Japan) [pg. 1113]

Mating disruption of the California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Homoptera: Diaspididae)
A. Hefetz, S. Kronenberg, B.A. Peleg and I. Bar-Zakay (Israel) [pg. 1121]

The potential use of Nomolt® for the control of citrus pests
A. Sagenmuller, H. Holtmann and R. Bansch (FRG) [pg. 1129]

The effect of a new Phenoxy juvenile hormone analog on California red scale and Florida wax scale
B.A. Peleg (Israel) [pg. 1141]

Use of gibberellic acid for Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa) control in grapefruit
R.E. McDonald, P.O. Greany, P.E. Shaw, W.J. Schroeder, T.T. Hatton and C.W. Wilson (USA) [pg. 1147]

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

Twenty years of biological control success on Citrus in the United States
M.Rose (USA)
[pg. 1153]

Phenology and biological control of the Japanese bayberry whitefly, Parabemisia myricae, on citrus in Israel
E. Swirski, D. Blumberg, M. Wysoki and Y. Izhar (Israel) [pg. 1163]

Biological control of the citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) (Homoptera: Ateyrodidae)
Y. Argov (Israel) [pg. 1169]

Coexistence of Aphytis holoxanthus and Pteroptrix smithi on citrus — a combination of interspecific interactions and pesticide effect?
H. Podoler, S. Steinberg, D. Rosen, E. Cohen and M. El-Hamlauwi (Israel) [pg. 1177]

Selection for pesticide resistance in Aphytis
A. Havron and D. Rosen (Israel) [pg. 1187]

Organization and activity of JBIA: A new production and marketing program integrated with feasible biological control in Japanese citrus orchards
K. Matsuoka (Japan) [pg. 1195]

Proven feasibility of biological control in Japanese citrus orchards and future prospects
M. Tanaka (Japan) [pg. 1201]

Colonization of Metaphycus spp. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for control of the Mediterranean black scale, Saissetia oleae (Oliver), (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Israel
D. Blumberg and E. Swirski (Israel) [pg. 1209]

Spiders as biocontrol agents in a citrus grove and their susceptibility to different pesticides
F. Mansour (Israel) [pg. 1215]

Entomogenous nematodes for root weevil control in citrus
W.J. Schroeder (USA) [pg. 1223]

Identification, ecology and control of the ants in citrus: a world of survey
P.B. Haney (USA) [pg. 1227]

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

Update, 1981-1987, of developments in mineral spray oils
L.A. Riehl (USA)
[pg. 1253]

Integrated pest management in the San Joaquin Valley of California
L. Carmean (USA) [pg. 1269]

Country-wide control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) in Israel
Y. Rossler (Israel) [pg. 1275]

Integrated pest management in the Emek-Hefer citrus groves
M. Gokkes and S. Gur-Arie (Israel) [pg. 1285]

ECOLOGY OF CITRUS PESTS

Population fluctuations of Scirtothrips aurantii Faure in citrus orchards in Reunion Island
S. Quilici, P. Geslin and B. Trahais (France) [pg. 1291]

Notes on population dynamics of Archips rosanus (L.) and Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hb.) in Sicilian citrus groves
G, Siscaro, S. Longo and S. Ragusa (Italy) [pg. 1299]

Citrus pests in Calabria (Southern Italy)
S. Ragusa and A. Russo (Italy) [pg. 1307]

Biotechnical control means adopted against Ceratitis capitata Wied. in clementine groves
S. Ortu and P. Prota (Italy) [pg. 1313]

ECOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to sex pheromones, trimedlure, ammonium and protein bait traps
G. Delrio and S. Ortu (Italy)
[pg. 1319]

Citrus mites in the Mediterranean area
V. Vacante, A. Nucifora and A.G. Tropea Garzia (Italy) [pg. 1325]

Host-feeding of Aphelinus chaonia Walker, (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitoid of Toxoptera aurantii (B.d.F.) (Homopiera: Aphididae)
G. Liotta (Italy) [pg. 1335]

Verticillium lecanii as a possible control agent of citrus black scale in Sicily
A. Russo, G. Magnano di San Lio, S.O. Cacciola and C. Asero (Italy) [pg. 1341]

CITRUS DISEASES

Investigation on the epidemiology of mal secco through a DNA probe of Phoma tracheiphila
I. Di Silvestro, L. Cupperi, M. Leonardi and A. Catara (Italy) [pg. 1349]

Xylem factors in susceptibility to citrus mal secco
G. Lanza, V. De Cicco, A. Ippolito and G. Cutuli (Italy) [pg. 1355]

Partial characterization of a Phoma tracheiphila strain with properties of hypovirulence
A. Ippolito, V. De Cicco and D. Gallitelli (Italy) [pg. 1361]

Citrus iristeza in Italy
M. Davino, R. Arreddia and G. Polizzi (Italy) [pg. 1367]

POSTHARVEST PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY

POSTHARVEST PHYSIOLOGY

Resistance of citrus fruit to pathogens and its enhancement by curing
S. Ben-Yehoshua, B. Shapiro, J.J. Kim, J. Sharoni, S. Carmeli and Y. Kashman (Israel) [pg. 1371]

The volatile constituents of peel oil obtained from uncommon acid citrus, shima-mikan comparing with those from other acid citrus, Sudachi, Kabosu and unripe Unshu-Mikan
H. Shiota, S. Itoo and M. Irie (Japan) [pg. 1381]

Effect of acetaldehyde vapors or anaerobic conditions prior to storage on postharvest quality of citrus fruits
E. Pesis and I. Avissar (Israel) [pg. 1393]

Regreening of stored pummelo fruit
Y. Saks, B. Weiss, E. Chalutz, A. Livne and S. Gepstein (Israel) [pg. 1401]

Granulation in pummelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] juice sacs as related to sclerification
I. Shomer, E. Chalutz, E. Lomaniec, M. Berman and R. Vasiliver (Israel) [pg. 1407]

POSTHARVEST PATHOLOGY

The effect of fenpropimorph and Flutriafol on the postharvest control of Geotrichum candidum in citrus fruit
E. Cohen, Y. Shalom and I. Rosenberger (Israel)
[pg. 1417]

Evaluation of imazalil efficacy in relation to fungicide formulation and wax formulation
P.M. Radnia and I.W. Eckert (USA) [pg. 1427]

Effectivity of Imazalil, Prochloraz and TBZ, applied in commercial citrus waxes
C. Namesny and A. P. Decoud (Urugay) [pg. 1435]

Effect of sprays with growth regulators on penicillium decay and fruit quality of Navel oranges
A. Chitzanidis, H. Manolopoulou and I. Vlouloglou (Greece) [pg. 1443]

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum — A new decay of fruit in Spain
J.J. Tuset and M.C. Marti (Spain) [pg. 1451]

Effect of intermittent degreening method on decay of Satsuma mandarin
J.J. Tuselt, J. Garcia and C. Hinbarejos (Spain) [pg. 1461]

Biocontrol of postharvest diseases of citrus fruit by microbial antagonists
E. Chalutz, L. Cohen, B. Weiss and C.L. Wilson (Israel, USA) [pg. 1467]

Influence of selected fungicide treatments to control development of decay for waxed or film wrapped Florida grapefruit
W.R. Miller, D. Chun, L. Risse, T. Hatton, T. Hinsch and G. Brown (USA) [pg. 1471]

POSTHARVEST TECHNOLOGY

The application of postharvest technology to packinghouse operations
B.L.Tugwell (Australia)
[pg. 1479]

Physiological behaviour of Tarocco' oranges during cold storage
M. Shirra and I. Chessa (Italy) [pg. 1491]

Study of ten different varieties of tangerines in Uruguay
A. Puppo, E. Zefferino, L. Bisio, J.C. Codina and E. Supino (Uruguay) [pg. 1499]

Evaluation of commercial citrus waxes
C. Namesny and A. Pablo Decoud (Uruguay) [pg. 1505]

Imazalil-sensitive and less sensitive strains of Penicillium digitatum competition experiments on oranges
J. Van Gestel (Belgium) [pg. 1511]

BASIC AND APPLIED ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUAL FRUIT SEAL PACKAGING (SYMPOSIUM)

Some experiments with edible coatings on the long-term storage of citrus fruits
G.J. Curtis (UK)
[pg. 1515]

Recent research on film wrapping of fresh produce in Florida
W.R. Miller and L.A. Risse (USA) [pg. 1521]

The application of seal-packaging to storage and transport of citrus in Australia
B.L. Tugwell (Australia) [pg. 1531]

Optimizing conditions for curing of Pummelo fruit in order to reduce decay and extend its keeping qualities
S. Ben-Yehoshua, N. Shem-Tov, B. Shapiro, R. Moran and J. Sharoni (Israel) [pg. 1539]

Trial on individual packaging of citrus fruit in Italy
F. Gorini and A. Testoni (Italy) [pg. 1545]

Plastic-film-packaged-storage of citrus and some other fruits in Japan
K. Kawada and H. Kitagawa (Japan) [pg. 1555]

ECONOMICS, MARKETING AND COMMERCIAL TRENDS

SELECTED ASPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF CITRUS MARKETING AND RESEARCH

Marketing of fresh citrus — the market and Citrus Marketing Board of Israel ir the next decade
Y. Weinberg (Israel) [pg. 1567]

Strategy for the citrus industries
I. Spharim, R. Nafcar and S. Shalhevet (Israel) [pg. 1571]

Some problems in marketing of citrus fruits in Japan
H. Kitagawa, T. Matsui and K. Kawada (Japan) [pg. 1581]

Distribution of returns lo growers in an export oriented fruit marketing organization
H. Lubin (Israel) [pg. 1589]

PRESENT SITUATION AND FORESEEN DEVELOPMENTS OF CITRUS PRODUCTION

Outlook for citrus development: Issues and constraints
U.G.Menini (Italy) [pg. 1597]

Survey and outlook of Bergamot (Citrus aranlium sub. bergamia Sw.) industry in Italy
E. Barone, G. Bounous, D. Gioffre, P. Inglesc and R. Zappia (Italy) [pg. 1603]

Developments in the Australian cilrus industry
P.T. Gallasch and N.J. Ainsworth (Australia) [pg. 1613]

Present and future of the Venezuelan citriculture
R. Mendt [pg. 1625]

CITRUS FRUIT QUALITY AND CONSUMERS PREFERENCES

Variability in early season Navel orange clone maturity and consumer acceptance
J.E. Pherson and E.M. Ivans (USA) [pg. 1631]

Tradeoffs between quality and shelf life in the marketing of individual sealed fruit
R.L. Shewfelt and M.S. Chinnan (USA) [pg. 1637]

Consumer acceptance of a new brand of selected sweeter grapefruits
J. Rozcnbaum (Israel) [pg. 1645]

SYMPOSIUM ON CHANGES AND TRENDS IN THE FRESH FRUIT INTERNATIONAL CITRUS MARKET

Evolution and trends of citrus consumption in France
A. La Rosa (France) [pg. 1651]

Changes and trends in the citrus markets of affluent countries
K. Pape (FRG) [pg. 1663]

Trends in the UK citrus market for the fresh citrus sector
T. Darby (UK) [pg. 1679]

Consumption of fresh fruit: Trends in the United Sates and a comparison with Japan
D. Tallent (USA) [pg. 1693]

PROCESSING

DEVELOPMENT IN PROCESSING

Some recent advances in the citrus processing industry in Florida
R.D. Carter (USA) [pg. 1697]

Freeze concentration: Potentials and economics in the citrus industry
W. van Pelt and M. van Nistclrooij (Holland) [pg. 1703]

Enzyme separated sections: A new lightly processed citrus product
R.E. Berry, R.A. Baker and J.H. Breummer (USA) [pg. 1711]

Heating steam control in a laste evaporator using a microprocessor controller
R.D. Carter (USA) [pg. 1717]

Evolution of volatile constituents in single and concentrated juices of lemon
I. Laencina, E. Nuflez J.M. Nunez and A.M. de Godos (Spain) [pg. 1725]

NEW PRODUCTS AND FRUIT SHELF-LIFE

The production of fresh orange juice
L.E. Gray (USA) [pg. 1731]

Shelf-life of enzymatically deaerated fresh chilled citrus juice
I. Sagi and C.H. Mannheim (Israel) [pg. 1737]

Phenolic compounds contributing to off-flavors in citrus products
H. Peleg, B J. Striem, M. Nairn and U. Zehavi (Israel) [pg. 1743]

Shelf-life of orange juice and grapefruit concentrate packages
A. Rouhana, C.H. Mannheim, N. Passy and J. Miltz (Israel) [pg. 1749]

Improving orange peel conservation for animal consumption
G. Ashbell and Z.G. Weinberg (Israel) [pg. 1759]

COMPOSITION OF CITRUS FRUIT PRODUCTS

Refining and crystallization of naringin from pummelo fruit (Citrus grandis Osbeck)
S. Itoo and F. Kuwabata (Japan) [pg. 1765]

Statistical procedures for the quality assurance of exported Israeli citrus product
A. Laufer and E. Cohen (Israel) [pg. 1773]

Total soluble solids in citrus varieties harvested at various stages of ripening
D. Halpern and A. Zur (Israel) [pg. 1777]

MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF CITRUS FRUIT

Mechanized systems for harvesting citrus fruit destined for processing
Y. Sarig, F. Grosz, B. Abramovitch, R. Kendel, H. Egozi, G. Michai and I. Sagi (Israel) [pg. 1785]

Fruit bearing zones and physical properties of citrus for mechanical harvesting
F. Juste, C. Gracia, E. Molto, R. Ibanez and S. Castillo (Spain) [pg. 1801]

Preliminary evaluation of an engineering system for production and harvest of citrus fruit grown in high-density dwarf tree groves
Y. Sarig, F. Grosz. P. Chen, R. Kendel and H. Pasternak (Israel) [pg. 1811]

ADDENDUM

To volume 2 — Cultural Practices (Grove Management)
Effect of "covering" on biomorphometric habitus and productivity of lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.] in the peninsula of Sorrento (Naples, Italy)
N. Pilone (Italy) [pg. 1819]

To volume 2 — Cultural Practices (Irrigation)
Citrus responses to different irrigation levels in Southern Portugal (Algarve)
H.-J. Brych and P. Ludders (FRG) [pg. 1831]

To volume 2 — Diseases and Nemalodes (Cryptogamic Diseases)
Length of receptivity of wounds on sour orange seedlings to Phoma traceiphila
G. Lanza and E. di Martino Aleppo (Italy) [pg. 1837]

More Information 

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Contact Information

International Society of Citriculture
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences-072

Tel: (951) 827-4663
Fax: (951) 827-4437
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