University of California, Riverside

International Society of Citriculture



International Citrus Congress - Italy 1992


International Citrus Congress - Acireale, Italy 8-13 March 1992

Seventh meeting of the International Society of Citriculture

 

TAXONOMY, BREEDING AND VARIETIES

Conventional and Novel Approaches to Citrus Breeding
A. Vardi [pg. 39]

Ex-situ Preservation, Evaluation and Maintenance of Pathogen-Free Clonal Germplasm of Cirrus and Related Genera: The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus
T.E. Williams [pg. 44]

The Introduction and Research of Pummelo Germplasm in China
Z. Chen and Z. Lai [pg. 48]

Biometric Analysis of Leaf Histological Characters in Citrus Germplasm
M. Mulas [pg. 53]

Pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) Germplasm Resources in Zhejiang, China
M.D. Weng [pg. 59]

Origin and Development of Mandarins in China before the Song Dynasty (A.D.960-1279)
W.B. Li [pg. 61]

Citrus Germplasm Preservation and Varietal Improvement Works in China
W.C. Zhang, X.X. Deng, and Z.A. Deng [pg. 67]

'Shani', 'Orah' and 'Winola' - Three New Selections from our Breeding Program
P. Spiegel-Roy and A. Vardi [pg. 72]

Selection of Satsuma Hybrids
L.C. Donadio and E.S. Stuchi [pg. 74]

Performance of Ten 'Navelina' Nucellar Lines Obtained from Ten Embryos of a Single Seed
A. Starrantino, G. Reforgiato Recupero, and F. Russo [pg. 76]

Characteristics of 'Ricalate', a Late Variety of the Navel Group
R. Bono, L. Fernandez de Cordova, and J. Soler [pg. 79]

Current Inventory and the Role of New Citrus Scion Cultivars in Florida (USA)
C.J. Hearn [pg. 82]

Comparative Behaviour of Six Late Mandarins in Crete
E. Protopapadakis [pg. 85]

Preliminary Results of the Mai secco (Phoma tracheiphila) Resistant Lemon Variety Improvement Trials in Turkey
O. Tuzcu, M. Kaplakiran, and T. Yesiloglu [pg. 87]

Productivity and Behaviour versus Mai Secco Disease of Some Lemon Cultivars and Clones Selected in Sicily
G. Continella [pg. 90]

Growth and Morphological Comparison of Diploid and Tetraploid Strains of 'Kinnow' Mandarin
M, M. Khan, I. A. Khan, and A. H. Mughal [pg. 93]

Genotypic Variability and Interrelationships among Morphological and Biochemical Fruit Characters in Mandarins
G. Russo and G. Fanizza [pg. 96]

Fruit Characteristics of Some Early Ripening Navel Orange
G. La Rosa, A. Busa, and G. Albanese [pg. 98]

Research on Stomata Frequency and Size in Several Citrus Species
M.A. Germana, M.P. Germana, A. Motisi, and F. Sottile [pg. 100]

Calculation of Genetic Parameters in Citrus
H. Lima, A. Sigarroa, E. Frometa, M. Torres, C. Martinez and A. M. Cabrera [pg. 103]

Grapefruits from the Isle of Youth
A. Pardo. C. Martinez, M. Belancourt, I. del Val, I. Estevez, R. Sanchez, A. Lopez, and M. Proenza [pg. 108]

Mutation Breeding Strategy for Citrus in South Africa
C.P. Du Plooy, P.J. Steenekamp, A.P. Vincent, C.F. Human, and P.J.J. Koekemoer [pg. 110]

Research of Seedless 'Willow Leaf' Mandarin (Citrus deliciosa) by In Vitro Gamma Irradiation of Nucellar Calli
P. Ollitrault [pg. 113]

Use of Triploids for Production of Seedless Cultivars in Citrus Improvement Programs
A. Starrantino [pg. 117]

Micro and Macro-Sporogenesis of Two Triploid Hybrids of Citrus
S. Fatta Del Bosco, G. Matranga, and G. Geraci [pg. 122]

Cytogenetic Mechanisms Underlying Reduced Fertility and Seedlessness in Citrus
F.G. Gmitter, Jr., X.X. Deng, and C.J. Hearn [pg. 125]

Percents of Nucellar Embryony in Some Hybrid Populations of Citrus latipes
G. Reforgiato Recupero and M.P. Russo [pg. 130]

Degree of Polyembryony, Size and Survival of the Zygotic Embryo in Citrus
W. dos S. Soares Filho, J.E. Vasquez Araujo, M.A.P. da Cunha, A.P. da Cunha Sobrinho, and O.S. Passos [pg. 135]

Identification of Zygotic Seedlings Derived from Polyembryonic Seeds of Citrus: The Use of 'Browning'
W. dos S. Soares Filho, M.A.P. da Cunha, A P. da Cunha Sobrinho, O.S. Passos, and M.T. Souza Junior [pg. 139]

Identification of Zygotic Embryos in Polyembryonic Citrus Seeds: The Use of Cotyledon Colours
J.E. Vasquez Araujo, W. dos S. Soares Filho, M.A.P. da Cunha, A.P, da Cunha Sobrinho, O.S. Passos, and A. da S. Souza [pg. 142]

'Cami', a New Mandarin Hybrid
A. Starrantino [pg. 145]

Survey of Bergamot Varieties in Italy
G. Terranova, A. Caruso, G. Reforgiato Recupero, G. Russo, and A. Starrantino [pg. 147]

In Vitro Selection of Nucellar Lemon Callus and Regeneration of Plants Tolerant to Phoma tracheiphila Toxin
A. Gentile, E. Tribulato, Z.N. Deng, and A.Vardi [pg. 150]

Enhanced Release of Chitinase and Glucanase into the Culture Medium by 'Femminello' Lemon Nucellar Callus Tolerant to the Toxin of Phoma tracheiphila
A. Gentile, E. Tribulato, Z.N. Deng, E. Galun, R. Fluhr, and A. Vardi [pg. 154]

Citron-Like Plants Regenerated from Lemon Ovule Culture
Z.N. Deng and A. Gentile [pg. 160]

Effects of Growth Regulators on Induction and Early Maintenance of Lemon Embryogenic Callus
A. Gentile and Z.N. Deng [pg. 163]

Somatic Hybridization in Citrus
S. Ishii, T. Ohgawara, I. Oiyama, and S. Kobayashi [pg. 166]

A Preliminary Report on Gametosomatic Fusion in Citrus
Z.A. Deng, X.X. Deng, W.C. Zhang, and S.Y. Wan [pg. 170]

Citrus Plant Regeneration and Chromosomal Variation Following Protoplast Fusion
X.R. Ye, X.X. Deng, S.Y. Xiao, and W.C. Zhang [pg. 173]

New Strategies for Citrus Rootstock Improvement by Means of Protoplast Fusion
N. Tusa, G. Geraci, and L. Radogna [pg. 177]

Investigations on Protoplast Regeneration from Leaves of Monoembryonic and Polyembryonic Citrus Species
N. Tusa, G. Ferrauto, and E. Calderaro [pg. 180]

Androgenesis in Citrus: A Review
M.A. Germana [pg. 183]

Pollen Derived Plantlets from Anther Culture of Ichang Papeda Hybrid No. 14 and Trifoliate Orange
X.X. Deng, Z.A. Deng, S.Y. Xiao, and W.C. Zhang [pg. 190]

Application of Flow Cytometry for Citrus Genetic and Breeding
P. Ollitrault, N. Michaux, and Ferriere [pg. 193]

Genetic Manipulation of Citrus by Using the Biolistic Process
A. Starrantino, M. Raciti, N.M. Antonelli, and E. Tramontano [pg. 199]

Isozymes as Genetic Markers in Citrus Growing in Cheju, and Their Gene Segregation and Linkage
O.K. Moon, J.H. Ko, Y.J. Heo, H.R. Han, and K.C. Ko [pg. 202]

RFLP Analysis of Different Lemon Cultivars
G. Albanese, M. Renis, and G. Reforgiato Recupero [pg. 208]

Genetic Mapping in a Citrus X Poncirus F2 Population
M.L. Roose, D.C. Jarrell, and R.S. Kupper [pg. 210]

Genetic Studies of Several Isozymes in Citrus
S.Y. Xiao, W.C. Zhang, and J.S. Cheng [pg. 214]

Leaf Isozymes of Mandarins
W.B. Li, G.F. Liu, and S.W. He [pg. 217]

DNA Fingerprinting in Citrus Cultivars
R. Motohashi, T. Matsuyama, T. Akihama, and M. Omura [pg. 221]

Application of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (R.A.P.D.) to Citrus Genetics and Taxonomy
F. Luro, F. Laigret, J.M. Bove, and P. Ollitrault [pg. 225]

Intra and Itergeneric Relationships of Ponciruspolyandra: Investigation of Leaf Isozymes
D. Fang and W.C. Zhang [pg. 229]

The Utilization of Citrus as Ornamental Plants in Italy
G. Condnella, G. La Malfa, and D. Romano [pg. 232]

ROOTSTOCKS AND PROPAGATION

The New South Wales Citrus Budwood Scheme
J.B. Forsyth and P. Broadbent [pg. 235]

Comparison of Rootstocks for a Nucellar Line of 'Washington Navel' Orange (NL 92) sel. Crescimanno
L. Radogna, G. Geraci, and A. Giuffrida [pg. 240]

Performance of 'Nagami' Kumquat on Six Rootstocks in Argentina
C.M. Anderson and H.N. Benatena [pg. 244]

Citrus Rootstocks Selection in Corsica for 25 Years
C. Jacquemond and D. de Rocca Serra [pg. 246]

Behavior of Limes and Lemons Budded on Volkamer Lemon in Venezuela
F. Sosa, R. Mendt, L. Avilan, K. Gomez, and F. Ochoa [pg. 252]

Effects of Citrus Rootstocks on Freeze Tolerance in California
M. Roose and R. Kupper [pg. 256]

Performance of 'Navelina' ISA 315 on 15 Rootstocks in 'Metaponto' Area
G. Reforgiato Recupero, A. Starrantino, S. Martelli, and A. Silletti [pg. 259]

Rootstocks for Grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Macf.) in Cuba
A. Simon, R. Jimenez, and N. del Valle [pg. 262]

Effects of Some Citrus Rootstocks on Fruit Yield and Quality of Kutdiken Lemon in Adana Turkey
O. Tuzcu, M. Kaplankiran, A. Alev, S. Dogan, and T. Yesiloglu [pg. 265]

Effect of Some Citrus Rootstocks on the Yield and Quality of the 'Washington Navel' Orange Variety in Adana (Turkey) Conditions
O. Tuzcu, M. Kaplakiran, S. Duzenogle, I. Bahceci, and T. Yesiloglu [pg. 270]

Effect of Some Citrus Rootstocks on Leaf Mineral Contents of Young and Adults Lemon Trees
S.M. El-Shazly, C.F. Alcaraz, and O. Carpena [pg. 275]

Behaviour of a Nucellar Line of Mandarin 'Tardivo di Ciaculli' Grafted on Several Rootstocks
L. Radogna, G. Geraci, and A. Giuffrida [pg. 280]

Flying Dragon Trifoliate (F.D.T.) as a Dwarfing Interstock for Citrus Trees
A. Ashkenazi, Z. Asor, A. Rasis, and D. Rosenberg [pg. 284]

The Flying Dragon Trifoliate Orange and B A-300 Citrange: Effects on Scion Performance
G. Reforgiato Recupero, A. Caruso, G. Russo, and A. Bertolami [pg. 286]

Performance of Oranges on Ten Rootstocks in Replant Soils
P.T. Gallasch [pg. 291]

Rootstocks for Lemons in Replant Situations
R.A. Sarooshi and P. Broadbent [pg. 296]

Screenhouse Evaluation of New Citrus Rootstocks for Tolerance to Adverse Soil Conditions
O. Sagee, D. Hasdai, M. Hamou, and A. Shaked [pg. 299]

Scion-Rootstock Relationships in Young Container-Grown 'Shamouti' Orange and 'Minneola' Tangelo Trees
A. Shaked , A. Goell, and M. Chamu [pg. 304]

An Evaluation of Eight Media for Propagation Citrus Nursery Trees in Containers in Northern Iran
F. Anvari, Y. Ebrahimi, Y.M. Aliyan, S. Nematoullahi, and K. Noushin Vahidi [pg. 307]

Rapid Multiplication of Citrus from a Single Plant
C.N. Roistacher [pg. 309]

Cryopreservation of Somatic Embryos of 'Washington Navel' Sweet Orange
M.L. Marin and N. Duran-Vila [pg. 313]

In Vitro Propagation of Citremon
O. Mas, N. del Valle, A. Rios, and M. Ramos [pg. 318]

Vegetative Propagation of Citrus Rootstock and Scion Cultivars by Rooting of Stem Cuttings
E. Danos, M.I. Plata, E.E. Gagliano, and A.I. Maydana [pg. 321]

Regeneration of Somatic Hybrids by Electrical Fusion among Citrus and Its Wild Relatives
T. Hidaka, R. Takayanagi, S. Shinozaki, K. Fujita, and M. Omura [pg. 323]

Flow Cytometric Analysis and Sorting of Citrus Protoplasts: A Rapid and Sensitive Technique for Selecting Somatic Hybrids and for Measuring the Effects of Toxins
S. Lucretti, J.V. Chapman, A. Lister, G. Giagnacovo, A. Migliaccio, F. Moretti, J. Dolezel, and A. Starrantino [pg. 329]

Embryogenic Callus Formation, Protoplasts Regeneration and Somatic Fusion of Different Citrus Species
A. Starrantino, G. Russo, M. Raciti, G. Reforgiato Recupero, P. Caponnetto, and S. Lucretti [pg. 334]

Citrus Rootstocks Characterization with Bark and Leaf Isozymes Application to Screen Zygotic and Nucellar Trees
P. Ollitrault, X. Faure, and F. Normand [pg. 338]

Microscopic Study of Graft Union Characteristics and Water Translocation in Young Citrus Budlings
Y. Shklarman, H. Safran, and O. Sagee [pg. 342]

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

A Rapid and Exact Method for Measuring Orange Fruit Volume
L.R. Zhang [pg. 346]

Growth and Development of 'Valencia' Orange Trees
N. del Valle, A. Campos, and O. Mas [pg. 351]

Influence of the 'Valencia' Orange Plantation on the Solar Radiation Regime in the Surface Level of the Air of Cuba Tropical Conditions
O.J. Solano Ojeda, E. Castillo, C. Garcia, J. Montenegro, and N. Bidzinashvili [pg. 353]

Plant Growth Inhibitors in Trifoliate Orange
Y. Nagamune and T. Akihama [pg. 357]

Leaf Cell Membrane Cryostability of Citrus Plant
Z.H. Sun, W.C. Zhang, and X.T. Ma [pg. 361]

The Characterization of the Inductive Effect of Low Temperature on Flowering in Citrus
A. Garcia-Luis, M. Kanduser, M. Sanchez-Perales, P. Santamarina, and J.L. Guardiola [pg. 364]

Advances in Frost Protection
S. Torrisi and A. Plebe [pg. 368]

The Effect of Soil Water Potential on Plant Growth and Gas Exchange of Young Orange Trees
K.S. Chartzoulakis and N.G. Michelakis [pg. 374]

Remote Sensing of Canopy Temperature Decrease in Summer Cooling Experiment
A. Plebe and R. Campisi [pg. 378]

Effect of Ethylene on the Induction of β-1,3-Glucanase and Chitinase in Citrus Leaves
Y. Dahan and O. Sagee [pg. 383]

Influence of Rootstock-Scion Combination in Lemon Trees Salt Tolerance
M. Nieves, D. Ruiz, and A. Cerda [pg. 387]

The Effect of Salinity on Citrus Rootstocks and Scions
Y. Levy, J. Shalhevet, and J. Lifshitz [pg. 391]

Behavior of Different Scion/Stock Combinations of Lemons [C. limon (L.) Burm. f.] against Cl- and Na+ Ions
M.F. Garcia-Legaz, A. Garcia Liddn, I. Porras Castillo, and J.M. Ortiz Marcide [pg. 397]

Selection for NaCl Tolerance of Troyer Citrange
P. Garcia-Agustin and E. Primo-Millo [pg. 400]

Carbohydrate Metabolism in Developing Citrus Fruits
A. Tzur, R. Goren, and U. Zehavi [pg. 405]

Ammonia and/or Its Metabolites Influence Flowering, Fruit Set, and Yield of the 'Washington Navel' Orange
C.J. Lovatt, O. Sagee, and A.G. Ali [pg. 412]

Evolution of Fruit and Juice Parameters during the Maturations of Grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.)
I. Porras, A. Garcia, M.F. Garcia-Legaz, and J.M. Ortiz Marcide [pg. 417]

Sesquiterpene Nootkatone as an Indicator of Ripening in Citrus paradisi Macf.
J.A. Del Rio, D. Garcia Puig, A. Onuflo, F. Sabater, A. Garcia Liddn, and I. Porras [pg. 420]

The Use of 2,4-DP to Improve Fruit Size in Citrus
M. Agusti, V. Almela, M. Aznar, and M. El-Otmani [pg. 423]

Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Benzyladenine on Tree-storage of Clementine Mandarin Fruits
R. Baez-Sanudol, L. Zacarias, and E. Primo-Millo [pg. 428]

Study on the Law of Orange Fruit Growth and Development and the Influence of Meteorological Factors
L. Zhang, G. Shen, J. Zhang, and H. Chen [pg. 432]

Effect of Modified Soil and Canopy Temperatures on Satsuma Mandarin
A.C. Richardson and P.A. Mooney [pg. 435]

Photosynthesis, Transpiration and Small Fruit Problem of Citrus Orange Fruit
M.M. Blanke and J.P. Bower [pg. 439]

Contribution to the Study of Phenology and Biology of Sweet Orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in Portugal
A.P. Nogueira and J.C. Franco [pg. 443]

Influence of Treatments with Cytokinins on ABA, GA3, and Micronutrients in 'Verna' Lemon during Growth and Maturity
D. Valero Garrido, Ma. Parra Gilabert, and Ma. R. Martinez Gimenez [pg. 448]

Relationships between Production of 'Baianinha Navel' Orange Trees and the Monthlies Rainfalls at the Plateau of Botucatu, Brazil
A. Tubelis and A.A. Salibe [pg. 451]

Effect of Different Harvesting Times on Citrus Quality of Satsuma, Clementine Mandarin and 'Thomson Navel' Sweet Orange in Sari
N. Abdi and H. Mojdeh [pg. 454]

Gibberellin A3 (GA3) on 'Minneola' Tangelo: Extension of the Harvest Season and Improvement of Fruit Quality
K. Greenberg, Y. Oren, G. Eshel, and E.E. Goldschmidt [pg. 456]

Use of Ethephon to Promote Colour Development in Early Ripening Clementine Cultivars
J. Pons, V. Almela, M. Juan, and M. Agusti [pg. 459]

Effect of Ethylene-Releasing Compounds on Colour Break and Abscission in Five Clones of Clementine
V.S. Manseka and E. Protopapadakis [pg. 463]

Increase of Out-of-Season Flowering of 'Tahiti' Lime (Citrus latifolia Tan.) in Veracruz, Mexico
J.R. Espinoza E. and G. Almaguer V. [pg. 465]

The Effects of Growth Regulators on the Promotion of Out-of- Season Harvest of Orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv 'Valencia Late' in Veracruz, Mexico
G. Almaguer V.H. Cruz, and J.R. Espinoza E [pg. 468]

Observations on Morpho-Qualitative Characteristics of 'Mapo' in Two Different Ecological Environments
G. Russo [pg. 471]

Early Harvesting of 'Fino' Lemons Using a New Synthetic Auxin
A. Garcia Lidon and Porras Castillo [pg. 473]

Main Ultrastructural Changes during Maturing Stage of 'Persian' Lime Fruit
M.E. Garcia and J. Rodriguez [pg. 475]

The Postharvest Use of Gibberellic Acid on Lemons
C.W. Coggins, Jr., M.F. Anthony, and R. Frills, Jr. [pg. 478]

Comparative Study of Flowering and Fruit Set in Lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burnt, f.] Varieties 'Eureka Frost' and 'Fino 49'
A. Garcia Lidon, M.F. Garcia-Legaz, I. Porras Castillo, and J.M. Ortiz Marcide [pg. 482]

Role of Gibberellins in Parthenocarpic Development of Seedless Mandarins
M. Talon, L. Zacarias, and E. Primo-Millo [pg. 485]

Fruit Setting Treatments' Effect on Two Clementine Mandarin Cultivars
F. Fornes, P.J.J. van Rensburg, M. Sanchez-Perales, and J.L. Guardiola [pg. 489]

Effects of Gibberellin and Girdling on the Yield of 'Nova' (Clementine x 'Orlando' Tangelo) and 'Niva' ('Valencia' x 'Wilking')
R. Goren, M. Huberman, and J. Riov [pg. 493]

Growth Regulators Use on Clementine Mandarin to Improve Fruit Set
M. El-Otmani, M.C. Ben Ismail, A. Ait Oubahou, and M. Achouri [pg. 500]

Growth Regulators on Citrus Crop under Cuban Tropical Conditions
M. Perez, L. Pozo, R. Anon, H. Oliva, C. Noriega, M. Gordillo, M. Aranguren, O. Vento, A. Martinez, M. Castillo, R. del Busto, O. Yanez, and A. Borroto [pg. 503]

Evaluation of Mecoprop (CMPP) to Control Preharvest Fruit Drop in Blood Orange Trees (Citrus sinensis L.)
S. Dettori, M. Pala, and D. Falqui [pg. 509]

Fruit Splitting in 'Valencia' and Its Relationship to the Pectin Status of the Rind
J.P. Bower, I.M. Gilfillan, and H. Skinner [pg. 511]

Simulation of Fruitlet Thinning Effects in Citrus by a Dynamic Growth Model
E.E. Goldschmidt, A. Harpaz, S. Gal, D. Rabber and E. Gelb [pg. 515]

Effects of 2,4-D, Ethephon and NAA on Fruit Size and Yield of 'Star Ruby' Red Grapefruit
J. Greenberg, Y. Hertzano, and G. Eshel [pg. 520]

Final Fruit Size Improvement in Common Clementine Mandarin by Using Dichlorprop
H. Vanniere and P. Arcuset [pg. 524]

Creasing Reduction in Navel Oranges: Lower Efficacy of Gibberellic Acid in Spray Mixtures Containing Petroleum Oil
I.M. Gilfillan and J.G.M. Cutting [pg. 527]

CULTURAL PRACTICES

Field Trial Evaluation of 'Valencia' Fruiting Terminal Leaf P, K and Mg Norms for a Low Base Status Loamy Sand
N. Du Sautoy [pg. 547]

Leaf Analysis Norms for Lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.]
S.F. Du Plessis and T.J. Koen [pg. 551]

Interpretation of 'Valencia' Leaf Analysis by Means of the N/K Ratio Approach
S.F. Du Plessis, T.J. Koen, and W.J. Odendaal [pg. 553]

Diagnosing the Nutrient Status of 'Valencia' Oranges in Southern Africa
D.B. Woods and J.M. de Villiers [pg. 556]

The Use in Southern Australia of Citrus Leaf Analysis to Develop More Efficient Fertiliser Programs
P.T. Gallasch [pg. 560]

Leaf Sampling Methods: A Problem in the Exchange of Fertilizer Management Information in the Citrus World
I.A. Khan, T.W. Embleton, M. Matsumura, and D.R. Atkin [pg. 564]

Leaf Analysis in Brazil - Present and Perspectives
E. Malavolta [pg. 570]

Effect of the Level of Fertilizer Application on the Nutri¬ent Status of Satsuma Mandarin Trees
N. Okada, A. Ooshiro, and T. Ishida [pg. 575]

SEFEAG: An Expert System for Citrus Fertilization
C. Resina, K. Chiriatti, D. Palazzo, F. Intrigliolo, and L. Coniglione [pg. 580]

Effect of Fertigation on Some Physiological Parameters in Orange Trees
F. Intrigiiolo, L. Coniglione, and C. Germana [pg. 584]

Effectiviness for the N Form Applied by a Drip Irrigation System to Citrus
F. Legaz, M.D. Sema, E. Primo-Millo, M. Perez-Garcia, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades [pg. 590]

Seasonal Trends in the Uptake and Distribution of Nitrogen in Satsuma Mandarins
P.A. Mooney and A.C. Richardson [pg. 593]

Effect on Nitrogenous Fertilization (Quantity and Nitrogen Form) in Precocity of Colour Change of 'Navelina' Oranges
J.M. Sala, P. Cunat, M. Collado, and V. Moncholi [pg. 598]

Data Base on Citrus Fertilization
G. Basile, D. Palazzo, C. Resina, F. Intrigliolo, A. Giuffrida, and L. Coniglione [pg. 603]

Response of Citrus to NPK Fertilization in a Network of Field Trials in Sao Paulo State, Brazil
H. Cantarella, J.A. Quaggio. O.C. Bataglia, and B. van Raij [pg. 607]

Leaf Spray and Soil Application of Fe-Chelates to 'Navelina' Orange Trees
F. Legaz, M.D. Serna, E. Primo-Millo, and B. Martin [pg. 613]

Potassium Fertilization Effects on Yield, Fruit Quality and Mineral Composition of Leaves of 'Tarocco' Orange Trees
A. Cicala and V. Catara [pg. 618]

Effects of Soil Sterilization and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Growth of Sour Orange (Citrus auramium L.) Seedlings
D. Palazzo, B. Pommerening, and S. Vanadia [pg. 621]

The Effect of NPK Fertilizers on the Yield and Mineral Contents of Leaves of Grapefruit
I.I. Androulakis, M.H. Loupassaki, F. Beidoun,a nd I. Tzombanakis [pg. 624]

Response to Liming of 'Valencia' Orange Tree on Rangpur Lime: Effects of Soil Acidity on Plant Growth and Yield
J.A. Quaggio, J. Teofilo Sobrinho, and A.R. Dechen [pg. 628]

Magnesium Influences on Fruit Yield and Quality of 'Valencia' Sweet Orange on Rangpur Lime
J.A. Quaggio, J. Teofilo Sobrinho, and A.R. Dechen [pg. 633]

Increasing Water Use Efficiency through Irrigation Management
C. Germana [pg. 638]

Progress Report on the Influence of Irrigation System on Yield and Fruit Quality in 'Valencia' Orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]
P. Deidda, M.R. Filigheddu, and S. Dettori [pg. 643]

Effect of Drip and Microsprinkler Fertigation on Citrus Yield and Quality
B. Bravdo. E. Salomon, Y. Erner, D. Saada, E. Shufman, and Y. Oren [pg. 646]

An Integrated Approach to Soil Conservation, Irrigation and Drainage in a Sloping Land
V. Sardo [pg. 649]

Growth and Evapotranspiration of Young, Drip-Irrigated Clementine Trees
J.R. Castel and A. Buj [pg. 651]

Fruit Splitting in 'Murcott' Tangerines: Control by Re¬duced Water Supply
E.E. Goldschmidt, D. Galili, and D. Rabber [pg. 657]

Experiences with Drip Irrigation in Orange Trees
C. Germana, F. Intrigliolo, and L. Coniglione [pg. 661]

Effects of Two Irrigation Intervals with a Spraying Irrigation System in Orange Trees
C. Germana, F. Intrigliolo, and A. Giuffrida [pg. 665]

Simplified Automatic Management of Irrigation
V. Sardo [pg. 668]

Model for the Management of a Reservoir for Citrus Irrigation in Eastern Sicily
O. Li Destri Nicosia, A. Capra, and B. Scicolone. [pg. 670]

Environmental Influence of Repeatedly Applied Soil-Acting Herbicides in the Citrus Orchards of Spain
D.G. de Barreda, E. Lorenzo, M. Gamon, A. Saez, J.G. de la Cuadra, C. Ramos, E.A. Carbonell, and A. del Busto [pg. 674]

The Use of Glyphosate-Trimesium for Weed Control in Cilrus
M.R. Bartley, J.K. Townson, A.J. Starling, and P.B. Sutton [pg. 677]

Contamination of Soil and Groundwater by Soil Residual Herbicides
L.S. Jordan and C.M. Jordan [pg. 682]

Effects of Long-term Weed Control Methods on Citrus
L.S. Jordan, C.M. Jordan, and J.L. Jordan [pg. 686]

Pruning and Mineral Losses from Mandarin Orchards in Sicily
F. Calabrese and M. Panno [pg. 690]

Three-Years' Experiments of Citrus Fruit Mechanical Pruning
G. Giametta and G. Zimbalatti [pg. 693]

Guidelines for the Commercial Use of Graft-transmissible Dwarfing in Australia - Potential Benefits and Risks
P. Broadbent, J.B. Forsyth, R.J. Hutton, and K.B. Bevington [pg. 697]

Research on Higher Density Planting for Orange and Lemon
E. Tribulato, G. Continella, and G. La Rosa [pg. 702]

Effect of Planting Density and Rootstock on Performance of 'Valencia' Orange
F. Inirigliolo, G. Reforgiato Recupero, and A. Giuffrida [pg. 705]

Initial Growth and Yield of High Density Plantings of 'Valencia' Orange as Influenced by Microsprinkler and Drip Irrigation
K.B. Bevington [pg. 709]

Dwarf Citrus Trees for High-Density Plantings
R. Perez. R. Rodriguez, A. Gonzalez, N. del Valle, and N. Duran-Vila [pg. 712]

Current Status of Research on Citrus Tree Size Control in Southern Africa
E. Rabe, N. Cook, G. Jacobs, and H.P. van der Walt [pg. 714]

Tree Growth in High Densities and Costs for Planting Citrus in Brazil
S.R. Roberto, L.C. Donadio, O. Sempionato, J.R.M. Cabrita, and J.D. De Negri [pg. 721]

Effects of Shortening Juvenility on the Grapefruit Seedling
N.T. Fan [pg. 723]

Treatments to Increase the Final Fruit Size on Satsuma 'Clausellina'
S. Zaragoza, I. Trenor, E. Alonso, E. Primo-Millo, and M. Agusti [pg. 725]

Crop Regulation of Satsuma Mandarin in New Zealand
A.R. Harty and P.G. Sutton [pg. 729]

Effects of Girdling Applications on Fruit Yield and Fruit Size in Clementine Mandarin
O. Tuzcu, M. Kaplankiran, and T. Yesiloglu [pg. 735]

Contribution of the Citrus Experimental Institute to the Reconversion of Italian Citriculture
P. Spina [pg. 740]

Summary of Workshop on Leaf and Soil Analysis as a Tool for Determining Fertiliser Requirements of Citrus
J. H. Terblanche and S.F. Du Plessis [pg. 744]

DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL

Biological Indexing of Virus and Viroids in Citrus in Brazil
A.A. Salibe and A. Tubelis [pg. 746]

Diagnosis of Diseases Caused by Viruses and Fastidious Prokaryotes in Citrus in India
Y.S. Ahlawat, N.K. Chakraborty, A. Varma, and S.P. Raychaudhuri [pg. 749]

Research for Citrus Improvement in Venezuela
E.E. Monteverde, G. Laborem, F. J. Reyes, J. R. Ruiz, and M. Espinoza [pg. 752]

The French Citrus Improvement Programme after Thirty Years
C. Chabrier and M.L. Caruana [pg. 756]

Selecting Disease-Tolerant Citrus Rootstocks for Australia
P. Broadbent and B.I. Gollnow [pg. 758]

Citrus Germplasm Blocks Control for Citrus Tristeza Virus by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Morocco
E.B. Nadori and M. Zebzami [pg. 765]

dsRNA Analysis of Some Isolates of Citrus Tristeza Virus Collected in South Italy
R. Areddia and M. Davino [pg. 767]

An Outbreak of Orange Stem Pitting in Queensland, Australia
P. Broadbent, J. Indsto, C. Dephoff, and J. Owen-Turner [pg. 769]

Cross Protection as a Procedure for Improving 'Pera' Sweet Orange
O.S. Passos, H.P. Santos Filho, M.J. Silva, and R.C. Caldas [pg. 772]

Nursery Distribution of Citrus Tristeza Virus in Florida
R.R. Pelosi and C.A. Powell [pg. 774]

Preliminary Observations of a Clone of 'Castagnaro' Bergamot against Different Isolates of Citrus Tristeza Virus
A. Caruso, G. Terranova, and M. Davino [pg. 776]

Spread of Decline-Inducing Isolates of Citrus Tristeza Virus in Florida
R.K. Yokomi, S.M. Garnsey , R.F. Lee, and C.O. Youtsey [pg. 778]

Variability of Serological Property and Electrophoretic Mobility among Satsuma Dwarf Virus and Related Viruses
T. Iwanami and M. Koizumi [pg. 781]

Occurrence of Citrus Ringspot Disease in Iran
H. Rahimian [pg. 784]

'Clemelinll-20', A New Indicator Plant for Citrus Cachexia
R. Perez, A. Gonzalez, L. Belie, and A. Marrero [pg. 786]

Comparisons of Some Post-Graft Techniques for Getting Early Result in Cachexia Indexing
S. Mermer and A. Demirkol [pg. 788]

Dwarfing of Citrus by Use of Citrus Viroids - Pros and Cons
C.N. Roistacher [pg. 791]

Effects of Citrus Viroids on Different Rootstocks
G. Polizzi, A. Azzaro, and A. Catara [pg. 797]

Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for the Rapid Detection of Citrus Viroids Using Multiplex Primer Sets
L. Levy, A. Hadidi, and S.M. Garnsey [pg. 800]

Use of Synthetic Probes to Diagnose Citrus Exocortis Viroid
R. La Rosa, M. Renis, G. Albanese, A. Calara, and M. Davino [pg. 804]

Recovery of Two Cultivars of Sweet Orange from Impietratura by in Vitro Culture
M. Davino, G. Terranova, A. Starrantino, and A. Caruso [pg. 807]

Elimination of Citrus Tatter Leaf Virus in Culturated Shoots
T. Jwanami, T. Hidaka, and M. Omura [pg. 811]

Elimination of Concave Gum Pathogen from 'Thomson Navel' Trees through Shoot Tip Grafting
V. Chalavi, M. Raeini Sarjas, and H. Rahimian [pg. 814]

Elimination of Genetic Brown Spotof Orange Rind through Shoot-Tip Grafting
A. Busa, C. Valenti, A. Azzaro, and G. Polizzi [pg. 815]

Citrus Greening Disease, a Serious Limiting Factor for Citriculture in Asia and Africa
B. Aubert [pg. 817]

Advance in Space of Epidemic Fronts of Citrus Canker in Commercial Groves
E. Danos, R.F. Bonazzola, and C.M. Raya [pg. 821]

Changes in the Resistance of Developing Citrus Fruit to Canker
B.I. Canteros [pg. 825]

Changes in the Mineral Composition of Citrus Leaves Affected by the Abnormality Variegated Chlorosis or Little Yellow
E. Malavolta, H.S. Prates, and G.C. Vitti [pg. 828]

Culture and Serology of a Xylella fastidiosa Associated with Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil
M.J.G. Beretta, R.F. Lee, K.S. Derrick, C.L. Davis, and G.A. Barthe [pg. 830]

Observations on Fusarium solani Naphthazarin Toxins, Their Action, and Potential Role in Citrus Plant Disease
S. Nemec and R. Baker [pg. 832]

Relationship between Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Fusarium sp. with Some Symptoms of Venezuelan Citrus Sudden Decline
E. Rangel, F. Ochoa. A.N. de Sanabria, and R. Crozzoli [pg. 838]

Evaluation of Rootstocks in Brazil for Resistance to Declinio
M.J.G. Beretta, J. Pompeu Jr., K.S, Derrick, R.F. Lee, G.A. Barthe, and B.C. Hewitt [pg. 841]

Fusarium solani – Root Rot of Citrus Related to Carbohydrate and Free Amino Acid Content of Roots
N. Labuschagne, J.M. Kotze, P.G. van Rossum, and E. Rabe [pg. 844]

Botrytis Blight in Citrus Nursery in Southern Italy
G. Polizzi and A. Azzaro [pg. 848]

Influence of the Scion on the Response of Sour Orange Rootstock to Phyiophthora Root Rot
A. Ippolito, F. Nigro, M. Salerno, and S. Privitera [pg. 851]

Evaluation of Tolerance to Phyiophthora Species in Scion Roolsiock Combinations of Citrus in Brazil - A Review
E. Feichtenberger,V. Rossetti, J. Pompeu Jr., J. Teofilo Sobrinho, and J.O. de Figueiredo [pg. 854]

Effectiveness of Fosetyl-Al against Citrus Brown Rot and Green Mold
M. Davino, F. Gentile, and O. Gamberini [pg. 859]

Growth Response to Chemical Treatment of Three Citrus Rootstocks Planted in Soil Infested with Phytophthora parasitica
H.D. Ohr, M. Murphy, J. Menge, S. Campbell, E. Johnson, and N. O'Connell [pg. 862]

Study of Pseudomonas syringae Population in Citrus Orchards
G. Cirvilleri, V. Catara, O. Leonardi, and R. Marino [pg. 865]

Current Status Prognosis and Loss Assessment of Mai secco (Phoma tracheiphiia) of Citrus in Greece
C.C. Thanassoulopoulos and B.D. Manos [pg. 869]

Relationship between Xylem Colonization and Symptom Expression in Mai Secco Infected Sour Orange Seedlings
G. Magnano di San Lio, S.O. Cacciola, A. Pane, and S. Grasso [pg. 873]

Role of Infected Seeds of Citrus Rootstocks in the Spread of Mai Secco Disease
A. Ippolito, V. Maurantonio, and R. D'Anna [pg. 877]

Length of Receptivity of Wounds to Phoma tracheiphiia (Petri) Kanc, et Ghik. in Spring Inoculations on Sour Orange Seedlings
G. Lanza, E. Di Martino Aleppo, and G. Cutuli [pg. 879]

Failure to Evaluate Lemon Resistance against Mai Secco Disease Using Culture Filtrate of the Pathogen
E. Traversa, A. Ippolito, and V. De Cicco [pg. 881]

Phy totoxic Activity of Mellein a Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolite of Phoma tracheiphila
A. Parisi, C. Tringali, G. Magnano di San Lio, and S.O. Cacciola [pg. 884]

Polygalacturonase Activity of Phoma tracheiphila
S.O. Cacciola, A. Pane, G. Perrotta, and G. Petrone [pg. 887]

'Dry Root Rot' of Citranges in Italy
G. Polizzi, G. Magnano di San Lio, and A. Catara [pg. 890]

Laboratory and Small-Scale Field-Screening to Identify Fungicides Effective against Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus
R.M. Sonoda, R.R. Pelosi, and J.E. Adaskaveg [pg. 894]

PESTS AND THEIR CONTROL

Energy and Economic Costs of Insecticide Application in California Citrus Orchards
P.B. Haney, R.F. Luck, J.G. Morse, and R. Amon [pg. 913]

Pest Management in California Citrus: An Economic Analysis
P.B. Haney, J.G. Morse, RP. Luck, and R. Amon [pg. 917]

Integrated Pest Management of Citrus Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa
T.G. Grout and G.I. Richards [pg. 920]

The Relationship between Aphelinus chaonia Walk. (Hym.: Aphelinidae) and Aphis citricola V. d.G.
G. Liotta, A. Agro, and M. Petrotto [pg. 924]

A Review of Soft Wax Scale (Ceroplastes destructor) on Citrus in New Zealand
R.H. Blank, P.L. Lo, and M.H. Olson [pg. 926]

Citrus Phenology as a Basis to Study the Population Dynamics of the Citrus Mealybug Complex in Portugal
J.C. Franco [pg. 929]

Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.): Ovipositor Measurement (a Preliminary Study to Population Characterization)
S. Ortu [pg. 931]

The Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). A Pest of Florida Citrus and Its Management
J.L. Knapp and D.P. Wojcik [pg. 933]

Spiders of Italian Citrus Groves
D. Benfatto, F. Di Franco, and V. Vacante [pg. 938]

Rust Mite Severe Damages on Fruits of' Valencia' Orange Its Magnitude and Effect on Quality
O. Castro Mata, R. Casamayor Garcia, C. Castro Garcia, and C. Suarez [pg. 943]

A Modified Method for Sampling Tylenchulus semipenetrans
G.A. Lombardi, J. Yale, and A. Baca [pg. 946]

Some Observations on the Ecology of the Citrus Nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb in Southern Italy
G. Roccuzzo, A. Ciancio, and V. Lo Giudice [pg. 950]

Larval Competition in Cales noacki Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)
M. Lo Pinto [pg. 953]

Biological Control of Parabemisiamyricae with Encarsia meritoria and Eretmocerus sp. in Italy
S. Longo, A. Russo, I. Patti, C. Rapisarda, and G. Siscaro [pg. 956]

Perspectives for the Utilization of a New Bacterial Strain in the Biological Control of Citrus Pests
T.C.S.C. Barreto [pg. 959]

Effect of Some Insect Growth Regulators on Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Well Known Predator of Icerya purchasi Maskell (Homoptera: Monophlebidae). Second Contribution
M. Loia and G. Viggiani [pg. 961]

Diffusion of Encarsia herndoni Girault (Hym.:Aphelinidae) Three Years after Its Introduction in West Sicily
G. Liotta and A. Agro [pg. 964]

Biological Control of Planococcus citri (Risso) by Leptomastix daciylopii Howard in Citrus Grove in Metapontum Area
R. Spicciarelli, D. Battaglia, and A. Tranfaglia [pg. 966]

Integrated Pest Control in Corsican Citrus Orchards
P. Brun [pg. 968]

Ecological and Organizing Criteria about the Integrated Control Carried Out in Cuban Citrus Groves
M. Montes and J. Mora Morin [pg. 971]

Integrated Pest Management of Citrus in Queensland, Australia - Recent Developments and Current Status
D. Papacek and D. Smith [pg. 973]

Integrated Control of Citrus Pests in Italy
S. Barbagallo, S. Longo, and G. Mineo [pg. 978]

An Extensive Biological Control Project of Parabemisia myricae in Sicily
F. Conti, S. Leocata, A. Russo, and G. Siscaro [pg. 985]

Phenology and Population Dynamics of Parabemisia myricae in Eastern Sicily (Homoptera: Aleyrodoidea)
C. Rapisarda and D. Pavone [pg. 987]

Influence of Temik Aldicarb Soil Treatments on Growth of Newly-Planted 'Hamlin' Orange Trees
R.C. Bullock and R.R. Pelosi [pg. 991]

NNI-850 - A New Compound for Controlling Mites in Citrus
V. Hennecke [pg. 995]

Spray Deposition with Conventional and Electrostatically Charged Spraying in Citrus Trees
A. Bayat, Y. Zeren, and M.R. Ulusoy [pg. 997]

Trials of Activity of a Buprofezin and Pirimiphos Methyl Mixture in the Control of Ceroplastes rusci (Fig Wax Scale)
C. Asero, F. Conti, and A. Martinoli [pg. 1001]

Medfly Control Based on Soybean Protein Hydrolysate Bait
G.M.T. Putruele and N.N. Abbiatti [pg. 1003]

Improvement of Mechanical Efficiency of Spraying on Citrus
F. Juste, A. Segura, P. Palacios, L. Val, and E. de Miquel [pg. 1007]

Trials to Examine Spray Deposition of Air-Carrier Sprayers in Citrus Orchard
G. Blandini and G. Schillaci [pg. 1011]

HARVESTING PROCEDURES, POSTHARVEST PHYSIOLOGY AND RESIDUES

An Approach to Robotic Harvesting of Citrus in Spain
F. Juste, I. Fornes, F. Pla, and F. Sevila [pg. 1014]

Vision Controlled Pneumoelastic End-Effecior for Citrus Harvesting
G. Amodeo, P. Levi, V. Indelicato, D. Provenzano, and G. Blandini [pg. 1019]

Maturity Calendar and Harvest Organization for 'Valencia' Orange in Jaguey Grande, Cuba
M. Aranguren, B. Lopez, J. Rodriguez, C. Suarez, and J. de Zayas [pg. 1023]

Colourimetric Measurement on Citrus Canopy
D. Provenzano and G. Schillaci [pg. 1026]

Colour Image Processing for Robotics in Agriculture
S. Capizzi, P. Levi, R. Pappalardo, and S. Torre [pg. 1029]

Problem Analysis of an Automatic Citrus Grading Machine
G. Blandini, P. Levi, and R. Pappalardo [pg. 1033]

Nondestructive Seed Detection in Citrus Fruits
Y. Sarig , A. Gayer, B. Briteman, E. Israeli, and P. Bendel [pg. 1036]

Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. Causing Post-Harvest Decay of Citrus Fruits
J.J. Tuset, M. T. Portilla, C. Hinarejos, and A. Buj [pg. 1040]

Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Anthracnose on Florida Citrus Fruit
G. Eldon Brown [pg. 1044]

Effect of Volatile Compounds from Citrus Fruits and Other Plant Materials upon Fungus Spore Germination
J. W. Eckert, M. Ratnayake, and A. L. Wolfner [pg. 1049]

Reducing Decay of Citrus Fruits by Induction of Endogenous Resistance against Pathogens
S. Ben-Yehoshua, J.J. Kim, V. Rodov, B. Shapiro, and S. Carmeli [pg. 1053]

Resistance Development of Penicillium digitatum and Disease Incidence on Oranges under Different Control Strategies
I. Vloutogiou, I. Aspromougos, A. Chitzanidis, and J .Kranz [pg. 1057]

Effectiveness of Imazalil and Guazatine Fungicides in Postharvest Decay Control of 'Tarocco' Oranges
M. Schirra, G. D'Hallewin, and S. D'Aquino [pg. 1060]

Reduced Chemical Treatment for Postharvest Control of Citrus Fruit Decay
E. Cohen, E. Chalutz, and Y. Shalom [pg. 1064]

Calcium-Enhanced Biocontrol Activity of Two Yeast Antagonists of Citrus Postharvest Diseases
E. Chalutz, S. Droby, L. Cohen, B. Weiss, A. Daus, C. Wilson, and M. Wisniewski [pg. 1066]

The Use of Tebuconazole for the Control of Aliernaria alternata on 'Minneola' Tangelos and Its Potential to Control Postharvest Decay when Applied as a Preharvest Spray
G.C. Schutte, K.H. Lesar, P. du T. Pelser, and S.H. Swart [pg. 1070]

Control of Postharvest Citrus Decay with Two Alternative Fungicides
G. Pellizzaro, G. D'Hallewin, and D. Satta [pg. 1075]

Influence of the Contaminated Locals Used on the Benefection and Preservation of Citrus Fruits on the Presence of a Fungus of Penicillium Genera
O. Otero, F. Guerra, C.B. Moya, and A. Paumier [pg. 1078]

Effects of Postharvest Curing at High Temperature on Decay and Quality of 'Marsh' Grapefruits and Navel Oranges
M.A. Del Rio, J. Cuquerella, and M.L. Ragone [pg. 1081]

Storage of Sudachi (Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai) in Japan
K. Kawada and H. Kitagawa [pg. 1084]

The Effect of Irrigation on 'Tarocco' Orange in Cold Storage: Preliminary Observations
M. Agabbio, G. D'Hallewin, S. D'Aquino, T. Castia, and C. Germana [pg. 1086]

Handling and Storage of the 'Minneola' Tangelo
B.L. Tugwell, G.A. Moulds, J.F.W. Hill, and W.L. Chvyl [pg. 1090]

Storage Behaviour of Orange 'Valencia Late' in Rooms with Ethylene Removal
A. Testoni, R. Cazzola, L. Ragozza, and G. Lanza [pg. 1092]

Response of 'Murcott' Mandarin Peel Essential Oil to Cold Storage
M. Usai and G. Arras [pg. 1095]

Effects of Cold Disinfestation Treatment on the Quality of 'Washington Navel' Oranges and 'Lisbon' Lemons
B.L. Tugwell [pg. 1099]

Influence of Storage Temperature and Coating on the Keeping Quality of 'Fortune' Mandarins
J.M. Martinez-Javega, M.A. Del Rio, M. Mateos, and C. Saucedo [pg. 1102]

Membranosis in Stored Italian Lemon
G.C. Pratella, P. Bertolini, and G. Lanza [pg. 1104]

Main Post-Harvest Physiological Disorders of 'Persian' Lime in Cuba
T. Castro-Lopez [pg. 1108]

Influence of Carbon Dioxide and Waxing on Chilling Injury of 'Femminello Comune' Lemons
G. Lanza, E. di Martino Aleppo, P. Bertolini, and G. Tonini [pg. 1111]

Postharvest Application of Squalene Delays Chilling Injury in Stored 'Valencia' Oranges
P. Bertolini, G.C. Pratella, and G. Lanza [pg. 1114]

Kohansho (a Physiological Disorder of the Rind) on the 'Kiyomi' Tangor
Y. Hasegawa and M. Yano [pg. 1117]

Informatics in Aid of Agriculture: Connection among Knowledge on Residues Problem
C. Russo, C.M. Lanza, and F. Tomaselli [pg. 1121]

The Methidathion Residues in Citrus Fruits
M.T. Nucifora, E. Bordonaro, C. Campisi, E. Cappellani, and C. Rudilosso [pg. 1124]

PROCESSING BIOCHEMISTRY OF CITRUS PRODUCTS

Anthocyanins of 'Moro' Orange Fruit Juice: Pharmacological Aspects
A. Saija, M. Scalese, M. Lanza, A. Imbesi, P. Princi, and A. Di Giacomo (801) [pg. 1127]

Anthocyanins Level in Italian Blood Oranges
P. Rapisarda and A. Giuffrida [pg. 1130]

Improvement of Extracting Naringin from Grapefruit Peel
H.J. Wu, M. Calvarano, and A. Di Giacomo [pg. 1134]

Newly Discovered Health Benefits of Citrus Fruits and Juices
J. A. Attaway andE.L. Moore [pg. 1136]

The Preliminary Study on the Concentration of Orange Juice by Membrane Distillation
E. Drioli, B.L. Jiao, and V. Calabro [pg. 1140]

Compositional Analysis for Establishing Variety Classification of 'Ambersweet' Orange - A New Citrus Hybrid
M. G. Moshonas, P. E. Shaw, and R. D. Carter [pg. 1145]

ECONOMICS, MARKETING AND TRADE

Evolution of Citrus Demand and Role of New Distribution System
D. Link [pg. 1151]

The Evolution of Citrus Demand and Supply
K. Chang [pg. 1153]

Contradictions and Limitations of Reference Prices for Fresh Citrus Fruit
F. Basile [pg. 1156]

Present Situation and Future Outlook of Moroccan Citriculture
M. El-Otmani [pg. 1164]

Long Term Financial and Economic Analysis of Tree Cultivations: A Case Study on the Productive Cycle of Citrus
M. Polelli, P. Giacomelli, and G. Sali [pg. 1167]

Developmental Features of Production and Wholesale Prices in Italian Citriculture
G. La Via [pg. 1171]

An Analysis of Production Costs in Citrus Fruit Farming with a View to Developing Technical Assistance and Agricultural Policy
P. Rapisarda [pg. 1177]

Production Costs and Economic Performance in Orange-Growing Concerns: An Analysis of a Significant Sicilian Production Area
G. Gulisano [pg. 1182]

Recent Development in the Cooperative Movement for Marketing Citrus Produce in Italy
A.S. Zarba [pg. 1185]

The Role of Wholesale Markets in the Trading of Citrus Fruit in Italy
L. Sturiale [pg. 1189]

Some Changes in the Distribution of Fresh Citrus Fruit in Italy and the Role of Associative Concerns
A-S. Zarba' [pg. 1195]

Modelling and Forecasting Florida Orange Production
F.A. Pino, S.A.G. Cezar, and A.A. Amaro [pg. 1199]

Citrus Expansion in the American Continent: Prospects and Constraints in Relation to the Newly Established Inter-American Citrus Network (IACNET)
L.G. Albrigo and U.G. Menini [pg. 1201]

Distribution and Consumption Consequences for Production and Marketing of Citrus from the American Continent
L.G. Albrigo and R.M. Behr [pg. 1204]

Recent Trends in the Australian Citrus Industry
P.T. Gallasch [pg. 1207]

Some Recent Trends in Production and Importation of Citrus Fruits in Japan
H. Kitagawa, K. Kawada, and E.B. Esguerra [pg. 1212]

INTEGRATED CONTROL IN CITRICULTURE MEETING OF I.O.B.C.

Status of the Biological Control against Citrus Whiteflies and Scale Insects in Italy
S. Barbagallo, C. Rapisarda, G. Siscaro, and S. Longo [pg. 1216]

Biological and Integrated Control of Citrus Insects and Mites
D. Rosen [pg. 1221]

Impact of Metidathion on Citrus Entomofauna: I- Perspective of Ecological Selectivity
S. Gravena, P.E.B. Paiva, and P.T. Yamamoto [pg. 1224]

Courtship and Mating Behaviour in Aphelinus chaonia Walker (Hym.: Aphelinidae), an Important Parasitoid of Toxaptera aurantii (B.D.F.) (Horn.: Aphididae). Preliminary Note
G. Liotta and S. Manzella [pg. 1227]

Bioecological Survey of Weevils Damaging Fruit Crops in Reunion Island
S. Quilici and A. Langlois [pg. 1229]

Biological Control of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) in Western Sicily (Horn. Aleyrodidae). Preliminary Note
A. Sinacori, G. Mineo, and G. Lo Verde [pg. 1233]

Integrated Pest Management in Brazilian Citriculture
S. Gravena [pg. 1235]

Male Attraction Modality by Female and Meaning of Post-Copulatory Courtship in Coles noacki Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)
M. Lo Pinto [pg. 1238]

Relative Host Preference of Cales noacki How. (Hym.: Aphelinidae) for Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.) and Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Horn.: Aleyrodidae)
M. Lo Pinto [pg. 1240]

Effects of Tylenchulus semipeneirans on the Morphogenesis of Juvenile Citrus Trees
M.M. B'Chir and S. Kallel [pg. 1243]

First Observations on Population Dynamics of Parabemisia myricae (Homopt.: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus in Tunisia
B. Chermiti, M. Dali, H. Messelmani, and J.C. Onillon [pg. 1247]

Control of the Woolly Whitefly, AleurochrLxus floccosus (Horn.: Aleurodidae) by the Parasitoid, Cales noacki (Hymenopt.: Aphelinidae)
B. Chermiti, M. Dali, H. Messelmani, and J.C. Onillon [pg. 1251]

Natural Enemies of Mites
V. Vacante [pg. 1256]

Influence of Green Cover with Ageratum conyzoides and Eupatorium pauciflorum on Predatory and Phytophagous Mites in Citrus
S. Gravena, A. Coletti, and P.T. Yamamoto [pg. 1259]

The Use of Indigenous Acarine Predators to Control Citrus Mite Pests
U. Gerson and V. Vacante [pg. 1263]

Effects of Abamectin, Buprofezin and Fenoxycarb on Postembryonic Development and Fecundity of the Predaceous Mite Typhlodromus rhenanoides Athias-Henriot (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae) in Laboratory Trials
S. Ragusa Di Chiara, H. Tsolakis, and A.M. Ciulla [pg. 1266]

Integrated Pest Control in Citrus-Groves, Evaluation on New Acaricides Used in the Treatment of Citrus Red Mite (Panonychus citri Koch.)
P. Papaioannou-Souliotis, A. Tsagarakou, and P. Dermatas [pg. 1269]

Integrated Management of Bacterial and Fungal Diseases of Citrus in the Mediterranean Region
G. Magnano di San Lio [pg. 1273]

Spatial Pattern of Inoculum of Phytophthora in Soil of Citrus Groves
G. Magnano di San Lio and A.M. Pennisi [pg. 1278]

PLENARY SYMPOSIUM

FACTORS LIMITING THE DEVELOPMENT OF CITRICULTURE

Citrus Greening Disease and Its Bacterial Agent
J.M. Bove and M. Garnier [pg. 1283]

Salinity and Citriculture
E.V. Maas [pg. 1290]

Environmental Stresses Limiting Citrus Production
W.J. Kender and L.R. Parsons [pg. 1302]

Irrigation Management and Citrus Production
S. Dasberg [pg. 1307]

More Information 

General Campus Information

University of California, Riverside
900 University Ave.
Riverside, CA 92521
Tel: (951) 827-1012

Contact Information

International Society of Citriculture
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences-072

Tel: (951) 827-4663
Fax: (951) 827-4437
E-mail: iscucr@ucr.edu

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